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    Laporan 7 PEHDAS >> EROSI HUJAN >> Pembahasan

    PEMBAHASAN
    Indeks erosi hujan adalah pengukur kemampuan suatu hujan untuk menimbulkan erosi. Kemampuan hujan untuk menimbulkan atau menyebabkan erosi itu dinamakan daya erosi hujan atau erosivitas hujan. Pada praktikum ini erosivitas didapatkan 2007 yang di dapat dari rata – rata penjumlahan daya erosi dari data peta erosivitas hujan. Hudson (1973) berkesimpulan bahwa kemampuan hujan di daerah tropika untuk menimbulkan erosi lebih besar dari pada hujan di daerah beriklim sedang.

    Vegetasi mempengaruhi siklus hidrologi melalui pengaruhnya terhadap air hujan yang jatuh dari atmosfir ke permukaan bumi, ke tanah dan batuan di bawahnya. Banyak vegetasi yang ada diatas permukaan tanah, seperti daun dan batang, menyerap energy perusak hujan, sehingga mengurangi dampaknya terhadap tanah, sedangkan bagian vegetasi yang ada di dalam tanah, yang terdiri atas system perakaran, meningkatkan kekuatan mekanik tanah (Stcyczen and Morgan 1995). Pengaruh vegetasi terhadap aliran permukaan dan erosi dapat dibagi dalam (1) intersepsi air hujan, (2) mengurangi kecepatan aliran permukaan dan kekuatan perusak hujan dan aliran permukaan, (3) pengaruh akar, bahan organic sisa – sisa tumbuhan yang jatuh dipermukaan tanah, dan kegiatan – kegiatan biologi yang berhubungan dengan pertumbuhan vegetative dan pengaruhnya terhadap stabilitas struktur porositas tanah, dan (4) transpirasi yang mengakibatkan berkurangnya kandungan air tanah (Arsyad 2006).

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    Skenario yang dilakukan untuk mengatasi erosi pada sub das 1, 3, dan 7 adalah tanaman perkebunan penutupan tanah rapat. Hal ini dilakukan karena tingkat efek imbas dari erosi masih tergolong rendah – sedang. Tanaman yang digunakan sebagai penutup tanah bersifat peka terhadap kerusakan, tahan terhadap musim kering dan segera tumbuh pada musim hujan. Pada sub das 2, 4, 5, dan 6 skenario yang dilakukan adalah Field pits, jagung mulsa jerami padi, teras bangku sedang dan teras bangku sempurna. Field pits dan jagung mulsa jerami padi merupakan scenario pengendalian erosi karena dapat ditanam dalam barisan memotong lereng atau menurut kontur dan juga sebagai pelindung talud, teras, dan parit. Selain itu, mulsa dapat mengurangi erosi dengan cara meredam energy hujan yang jatuh sehingga tidak merusak struktur tanah, mengurangi kecepatan dan jumlah aliran permukaan sehingga mengurangi daya kuras aliran permukaan (Arsyad 2006). Pengendalian erosi dengan cara membangun teras bangku dibuat dengan cara menggali tanah pada lereng dan meratakan tanah dibagian bawah sehingga terjadi suatu deretan tangga dan bangku.
    Pada pengaplikasian scenario terhadap penghitungan jumlah erosi sangat turun jumlah erosi ton per hektarnya dibandingkan dengan sebelum diberikan scenario pengendalian. Seperti pada sub das 1 sebelumnya tercatat 140667.92 menjadi 17.74, subdas 2 290458.85 menjadi 7.56, subdas 3 1514092.00 menjadi 13.44, subdas 4 843060.91 menjadi 18.07, subdas 5 241390.93 menjadi 13.50, subdas 6 351326.43 menjadi 9.35, dan subdas 7 444158.75 menjadi 15.71.

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    Pustaka :
    Hudson N. 1973. Soil Conservation (Third Edition). Cornell University Press. Ithaca, New York.
    Arsyad S. 2006. Konservasi Tanah dan Air. Bogor: IPB Press

    Styczen ME and RPC Morgan. 1995. Engineering Properties of Vegetation. Di Dalam : Slope Stabilization and Erosion Control. A Bioengineering Approach. Morgan RPC and RJ Rickson (eds). E & FN SPON. An Imprint of Chapman & Hall. London. P : 5 - 58

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